Under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), we, the U.S. (27) Comment: Four commenters expressed conditional support for the proposed downlisting rule if the Service would withdraw or limit the 4(d) proposal. Count-based models (for Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, the island of Maui, Haleakala National Park, the island of Molokai, and the island of Kauai) showed an increase or leveling off around current population estimates (Amidon 2017, pp. 1973). While it is important to restore nene within its native ecosystem to ensure long-term species survival, nene currently successfully use a gradient of habitats ranging from highly altered to completely natural. We have added this estimate to this final rule under Species Information. Our current methods of outreach include releases to media (local television and newspaper stations), multiple social media stories and website postings, and outreach to the community. Over 50 nene were struck and killed by cars across the roadways of Kauai in 2 years (Kauai DOFAW 2016, in litt.). Nene productivity and survival are currently limited by insufficient nutritional resources due to habitat degradation and the limited availability of suitable habitat due to habitat loss and fragmentation, especially in lowland areas (USFWS 2004, pp. The effect of this rule is to exclude certain specific actions from the prohibitions on take so that such actions may not require an exemption through section 7(o) of the Act. Still listed under the Endangered Species Act, the nene is also protected by collaborative programs with landowners designed to bring the goose to full recovery. While every effort has been made to ensure that At a minimum, current management levels must be continued to sustain current population trends. Many invasive, nonnative species established in Hawaii currently have limited but expanding ranges, and they cause considerable concern. (15) Comment: The HDLNR commented that some Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) employees are concerned that downlisting nene and the establishment of a 4(d) rule, and associated provisions under State law, could result in inadequate regulatory mechanisms for the nene and other endangered species in Hawaii. There have been significant changes to the caldera floor and notable deposits of ash in the vicinity of the Kilauea summit and to the southwest (Misajon 2018, in litt.). All three ant species are nonnative and are known to cause significant injuries and developmental problems in adults and chicks of ground-nesting seabirds, and are expected to have similar effects on nene (S. Plentovich 2019, in litt.). provide legal notice to the public or judicial notice to the courts. We have outlined such circumstances below as exceptions to the prohibitions of take. (21) Comment: Six commenters stated that the nene is a rare species with low number of individuals (especially on Oahu) and endangered throughout a significant portion of its range. Species: Branta sandvicensis (Vigors, 1834). Phylum: Chordata - chordates Until the ACFR grants it official status, the XML The exceptions from the prohibitions of section 9 of the Act specified in this final 4(d) rule target activities to facilitate conservation and management of nene where they currently occur and may occur in the future through increased flexibility by eliminating the Federal take prohibition under certain conditions. “Nene Crossing” postcards with “Slow Down” messages in different languages are handed out to vehicles entering the park. How to protect Hawaii’s nene goose Hawaii Volcanoes National Park created this public service announcement to create awareness of the nene among visitors who drive into the park. Upon finalization of this rule, the State will be the main authority regarding how and whether any of the excepted forms of take outlined in this rule will be permitted. Amend § 17.11(h) by removing the entry for “Goose, Hawaiian” and adding an entry for “Goose, Hawaiian (Nene)” in its place under BIRDS in the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife to read as follows: 3. 8-9) were developed with readily available information on each population (Hu 1998; Hu 1999, unpubl. On the other hand, DOFAW appreciates that a more flexible regulatory mechanism to authorize nonlethal take permits is needed in some circumstances (e.g., hazing), and that the 4(d) rule may be effective in implementing a more intuitive approach to managing the bird in specific situations. The effect on nene of these changes associated with temperature increase is detailed in the following paragraphs. These projected decreases in precipitation are important stressors for nene because they experience substantially higher mortality from starvation in drought years (Hess 2011, p. 59). (vi) Attempt to commit, solicit another to commit, or to cause to be committed, any of the acts described in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) through (v) of this section. We recognize that populations with low genetic variability have increased susceptibility to disease (e.g., West Nile virus, avian influenza). The study concluded that enhanced management efforts, which include an appropriate predator control effort, would enable nene to reach a self-sustaining level (Black and Banko 1994, entire). Although the nene population is currently stable, it is considered a conservation-reliant species and requires active management to maintain this stability. For example, nene collide with trees, fences, and particularly motor vehicles (Banko and Elder 1990; Banko et al. 107-114). Class: Aves - birds 128-136). Recent years have seen an increase in the capacity of conservation agencies and partners to manage habitat and control predators on larger spatial scales. 1999, pp. Also, between 2011 and 2015, only 1 percent of the 866 cases of avian botulism involved nene in the Kauai NWR Complex (Uyehara 2016b, in litt.). (34) Comment: One commenter stated the need for an increase in biosecurity efforts. The Act does not define the term “foreseeable future.” For the purposes of this rule, we define the “foreseeable future” to be the extent to which we can reasonably rely on predictions about the future in making determinations about the future conservation status of nene. Because the species is likely to become in danger of extinction in the foreseeable future throughout all of its range, the species meets the definition of a threatened species. Incidental take of threatened and endangered species may be authorized through the issuance of a temporary license as part of a safe harbor agreement (SHA) or habitat conservation plan (HCP) (Hawaii Revised Statutes (HRS) 195D-21, HCPs; 195D-22, SHAs). Start Printed Page 69929Predation by mongoose, dogs, cats, rats, and feral pigs continues to affect all life stages of nene (eggs, goslings, and adults), negatively impacting breeding success and survival. It is only a matter of time before mongoose establish on Kauai; therefore, nene should remain classified as endangered. Kealia Pond NWR, on the south-central coast of Maui, was established in 1992, to conserve habitat for the endangered Hawaiian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni) and Hawaiian coot (Fulica alai). Federal Register issue. “Species” is defined by the Act as including any species or subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any distinct vertebrate population segment of vertebrate fish or wildlife that interbreeds when mature (16 U.S.C. Cats are the sole known lifecycle host for the protozoan that causes toxoplasmosis. Our Response: We agree that vehicle strikes at Haleakala National Park, and across the species' range, are a threat to nene, particularly during breeding season, as discussed in the April 2, 2018, proposed rule and this final rule under Factor E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Its Continued Existence. The capacity of State and Federal agencies and their nongovernmental partners in Hawaii to provide sufficient inspection services, enforce regulations, and mitigate or monitor the effects of nonnative species is limited due to the large number of taxa currently causing damage (CGAPS 2009). 20-21). If a nest or families with goslings is discovered, a qualified biologist must be notified and the following measures implemented to avoid disturbance of nests and broods: (1) No disruptive activities may occur within a 100-foot (30-meter) buffer around all active nests and broods until the goslings have fledged; and (2) brooding adults (i.e., adults with an active nest or goslings) or adults in molt may not be subject to intentional harassment at any time. Further, any take of nene is still prohibited under State law, and any action likely to adversely affect the nene continues to require consultation with the State. Some open-top pens used previously to rear captive nene on National Park Service lands are now used to provide predator-free nesting and brooding habitat for free-flying pairs or as temporary holding pens for sick or injured birds (Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 2016, in litt.). Severe, ongoing volcanic eruptions have the potential to destroy much or all of the habitat in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and surrounding areas that support approximately one-third of the statewide nene population. “Thanks to this highly effective law, the beautiful Hidden Lake bluecurls can thrive and continue to grace the San Jacinto Mountains.” ... and the Hawaiian goose or nene. comm.). The high rates of gosling mortality (57 to 81 percent) in Haleakala National Park during the mid-1990s were due to starvation and dehydration (Baker and Baker 1995, p. 2; 1999, p. 12). Newspaper notices inviting general public comments were published in the Honolulu Star Advertiser, West Hawaii Today, Hawaii Tribune Herald, The Garden Isle, The Maui News, and The Molokai Dispatch newspapers. 180-181; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 74; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73; Vitousek et al. Cattle egrets and barn owls were both introduced into Hawaii in the late 1950s, in an attempt to address agricultural pests on farms and ranches. These three islands make up over 80 percent of nene's historical range. Our Response: We agree that taro farms on Kauai support large numbers of nene and that taro farms are important, although not ideal, habitat. Migratory birds have been implicated in the long-range spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), a virus (H5N1) from Asia to Europe and Africa. #106923392 - Nene Goose,Hawaiian goose, (Branta Sandvicensis) Big Island Hawaii. (35) Comment: One commenter stated that nene regulations are costly for businesses, due to bird droppings in restaurants and pools and nene eating of farm crops. (iv) Qualified biologist means an individual with a combination of academic training in the area of wildlife biology or related discipline and demonstrated field experience in the identification and life history of nene. 32-33; Warren 2011, pp. documents in the last year, by the Federal Aviation Administration More cases of emaciation were diagnosed on Hawaii Island (32), and to a lesser extent on Kauai (21) and Maui (13), perhaps reflecting the rates of hatching and fledgling success and nutritional quality of habitats on the respective islands. Counts are subject to sampling, reprocessing and revision (up or down) throughout the day. Along with mongoose, dogs are a significant predator of adult nene, and may also take goslings (Kear and Berger 1980, p. 57; Banko and Elder 1990, p. 122). On Kauai, where mongoose are not yet established, protecting the nesting area from other predators, such as dogs and cats, was found to be extremely successful (Telfer 1998, pers. 103-104). Predator control measures have improved survival and reproductive success and contributed to population increases in managed areas. This repetition of headings to form internal navigation links (7) We modified the 4(d) rule to explicitly identify six categories of prohibited actions, which resulted in changes to its organizational structure and narrative justification but no substantive alteration in either prohibited or excluded actions. Nine of the 44 entangled nene have been observed with constriction or swelling on their legs; 3 have received rehabilitation and been released; and 1 was euthanized due to injuries sustained from the material. (12) Comment: The HDLNR commented that a divide exists between the downlisting criteria outlined in the nene recovery plan and the definitions of “endangered” and “threatened” species under the Act. Our analyses of Factor A under the Act include consideration of ongoing and projected changes in climate, and the impacts of global climate change and increasing temperatures on Hawaii ecosystems, all of which are the subjects of active research. Humans, too, hunted the birds for their meat, eggs and feathers. Not all instances of entanglement result in harm to nene, as birds may free themselves from threads. Although the peer reviewer believes that the low genetic variation and inbreeding are not likely the dominating factors threatening nene population numbers (compared to for example, mongoose and other introduced predators), the peer reviewer thinks this section oversimplifies the potential threats of these factors to nene. The population on Kauai, most recently estimated at 1,482 birds, is stable and increasing, sustained by ongoing predator control and habitat management (NRAG 2017; DLNR 2018, in litt.). ; 2015, in litt.) captive-bred birds to the wild proved difficult, but recent efforts have been very successful. Please also see our response to comment (2). For mortalities attributed to T. gondii, the cause of death is typically diagnosed as inflammation or lesions on multiple organs. These opportunities may be used instead of methods identified in the recovery plan. The eruption in lower Puna eliminated habitat for a small group of nene that resides in the area (Mello 2018, in litt.). Human activities such as vehicle collisions, artificial hazards, and other human interactions (Factor E) continue to result in injury and mortality; while the individual impacts of these hazards do not constitute threats with population-level impacts to nene, they collectively and in combination with other factors (Factors A, C, and D) constitute an ongoing threat. Thus, the Navy's request has been addressed. Cones, signs, and a radar trailer are placed along roadsides where nene are frequently seen. a variety of goose. Relevant information about this document from Regulations.gov provides additional context. We call this “reclassifying” or “downlisting” the species. We expect there will be both anticipated (e.g., increased intensity and frequency of drought and hurricane) and unanticipated impacts, although we do not know when such impacts will Start Printed Page 69940manifest. 1361-1407; 1531-1544; and 4201-4245, unless otherwise noted. 2008, p. 360, Figure 8; Yu et al. Nonnative ungulates and plants are ongoing threats that we expect will continue indefinitely into the future and require continued management, as the Start Printed Page 69926main Hawaiian islands are too large for complete eradication to be feasible. The OFR/GPO partnership is committed to presenting accurate and reliable 2005, p. 14). Our Response: We concur that the range of nene has contracted; however, due to captive-rearing and release efforts, nene are now self-sustaining on the islands of Hawaii, Kauai, and Maui. 692-693). 2007); Washington Environmental Council v. National Marine Fisheries Service, 2002 U.S. Dist. Any proposed action that may cause take of nene on Federal lands will still require consultation with the Service. 12/10/2020, 300 (4) Comment: The NRCS commented that the recent gains in the statewide nene population as a whole appear strongly tied to the productivity of the Kauai population. This rule finalizes provisions under the authority of section 4(d) of the Act and is necessary and advisable for the conservation needs of the nene. On September 24, 2004, the Service made the Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Nene (USFWS 2004) available for public review and comment (69 FR 57356). documents in the last year, 345 This plan outlines the myriad biosecurity threats (e.g., mongoose and other harmful nonnative animals, diseases, and nonnative plants) in Hawaii and provides broad-scale solutions, including inspections at all air and sea ports to prevent inter-island, interstate, and international spread of invasive species. (1) Comment: While low genetic variation in nene on Kauai does not appear to affect their fitness, this should not be assumed to be true for the species as a whole. We received a total of 36 comment letters on the proposed nene downlisting and associated 4(d) rule. They stated that genetic testing would be best to determine the threat of inbreeding. 1999, pp. Comments and materials received, as well as supporting documentation used in preparation of this final rule, are available for public inspection at http://www.regulations.gov, or by appointment at: U.S. 2013, p. 484). 668dd note). 23-24; USFWS 2004, pp. If a nest is discovered, the Service and authorized State wildlife officials must be notified within 72 hours (see paragraph (d)(4) of this section for contact information) and the following measures implemented to avoid disturbance of nests and broods: (1) No disruptive activities may occur within a 100-foot (30-meter) buffer around all active nests and broods until the goslings have fledged; (2) Brooding adults (i.e., adults with an active nest or goslings) or adults in molt may not be subject to intentional harassment at any time; and. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment of Its Habitat or Range. 2017, p. 9), due, at least in part, to gravitational redistribution of meltwater resulting from terrestrial ice melt occurring in Greenland, Antarctica, and other places (Spada et al. At Hakalau Forest NWR, a new population was created with the reintroduction of 33 captive-bred nene between 1996 and 2003. The diameter of rotor blades (approximately 330 ft (100 m)) and combined height of WTGs (up to 428 ft (131 m)) create large obstacles for nene during flight. Approximately 10 flash floods impacted the Hanalei flood plain through the 2017-2018 breeding season, which hindered breeding activity (Luxner et al. As outlined in the April 2, 2018, proposed rule and this final rule, the purpose of the 4(d) rule is to facilitate the expansion of nene into additional areas with land use practices compatible with the conservation of nene, and reduce the occurrence of nene in areas that do not support the conservation of nene across the landscape. At high-elevation nesting sites, frequent heavy precipitation may affect gosling survival during the cooler months (Hess et al. In addition, this rule corrects the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife to reflect that Nesochen is not currently a scientifically accepted generic name for this species, and acknowledges the Hawaiian name “nene” as an alternative common name. 690-694). Nene went through a prehistoric population bottleneck and have very low genetic diversity (Paxinos et al. documents in the last year, 112 We are uncertain regarding any future impacts to nene's viability from wind turbines; however, we and the State will be monitoring and regulating wind farm activity through HCPs. Our Response: This reclassification and associated 4(d) rule is designed to give more nene management authority to the State. 1999; USFWS 2004; Bailey and Tamayose 2016, in litt. We also agree that wind turbines have the potential to harm nene. For example, courts have approved rules developed under section 4(d) that include a taking prohibition for threatened wildlife, or include a limited taking prohibition. Releasing pre-fledged goslings with parents or foster parents from open-top pens during years with sufficient rainfall was found to be the most successful release method on the island of Hawaii (Black et al. Although initially the recent eruption temporarily altered nene behavior by causing them to spend much more time at Wright Road farms, Volcano Winery, and Volcano Golf and Country Club, by December 2018, State biologists reported that “business is as usual” for nene in the volcano area (Mello 2018, in litt.). Additionally, it is still against both Federal and State law to harm, abuse, or kill a nene. Harassment of nene in the course of surveys that benefit and further the recovery of nene is also considered to be within the scope of this 4(d) rule. Measures to control feral cat populations would reduce the risk of exposure of nene to toxoplasmosis. 2017, in litt.). Conservation needs and activities to recover nene vary among islands due to differences in factors affecting nene populations both within and among islands. Therefore, any qualified employee or agent of a State Conservation Agency which is a party to a Cooperative Agreement with the Service in accordance with section 6(c) of the Act, who is designated by his or her agency for such purposes, will be able to conduct activities designed to conserve nene that may result in otherwise prohibited take without additional authorization. Emaciation was the most common cause of death diagnosed in 71 out of 300 adult and gosling mortalities submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center between 1992 and 2013 for which a cause of death was identified (Work et al. 103-107). Proper nutrition is critical for successful reproduction. Human activities associated with the development and urbanization of lowland habitat will continue to impact Start Printed Page 69923nene. Kauai Department of Fish and Wildlife (DOFAW) also has predator control programs and may provide supplemental feed during drought years. We are also adopting a rule under the authority of section 4(d) of the Act (a “4(d) rule”) to enhance conservation of the species through range expansion and management flexibility. Between 1989 and 1999, lack of adequate food or water also appeared to be a factor limiting nene recruitment in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Rave et al. Over 4,000 specimens were collected from waterfowl, shorebirds, and other species from throughout the Pacific, and no highly pathogenic avian influenza was detected (Work and Eismueller 2007, p. 2). Periods of drought are expected to continue and are likely to be exacerbated by the effects of climate change. 2-10). As discussed under Factor C, the introduction of diseases such as West Nile virus could significantly impair the viability of nene in Hawaii. 1990, p. 42). ; KISC 2019). 2:19-31). Each document posted on the site includes a link to the Hawaii's average annual population growth rate has since slowed to 0.7 percent per year, and is anticipated to slow to 0.5 percent by 2025 (Hawaii Department of Business, Economics, and Tourism (HDEBT) 2018, p. 2); however, existing demands for competing resources will persist. Breeding females require carbohydrates and protein to increase fat reserves for egg laying and incubation; goslings require high-protein foods for growth and development (Ankney 1984, pp. If an activity creates the likelihood of injury to wildlife by annoying it to such an extent as to significantly disrupt normal behavioral patterns such as breeding, feeding, and sheltering, then the activity has the potential to cause take in the form of harassment. (4) Possession and other acts with unlawfully taken specimens as provided in § 17.21(d)(2) through (4)). [FR Doc. 2005, p. 12). All three Maui facilities have approved habitat conservation plans (HCPs) and have received Federal incidental take permits and State incidental take licenses authorizing the total combined take of 95 nene during the 20-year period of operation for each project. We invite you to try out our new beta eCFR site at https://ecfr.federalregister.gov. Although the translocations were beneficial, the Hawaii and Maui populations would likely have been self-sustaining over time without the translocated birds. Nene have been very successful in these areas, indicating their adaptability to a variety of habitats. ), commercial chemical bird repellents, ultrasonic repellers, audio deterrents (noisemakers, pyrotechnics, etc. Aug. 24, 2018), did not address this issue, and our conclusion is therefore consistent with the opinion in that case. Estimates of the population on Molokai have fluctuated widely since the reintroduction of 74 birds was completed in 2004. 1999, pp. The conservation measures reduce but do not eliminate the threat of vehicle collisions. This 4(d) rule does not apply to activities involving lethal or directly injurious take. Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. A person may incidentally take nene in the course of carrying out nonnative predator control or habitat management activities for nene conservation purposes if reasonable care is practiced to minimize effects to the nene. Hanalei NWR was established in 1972, to aid in the recovery of the four endangered Hawaiian waterbirds and nene (Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969; 16 U.S.C. Under this 4(d) rule, take will generally continue to be prohibited, but the following specific take will be excepted under the Act, provided the additional measures described in the rule are adhered to: The increased interaction of nene with the human environment increases the potential for nene to cause conflicts for business, agricultural, residential, and recreational activities, as well as the potential for nene to become habituated to hazardous areas (e.g., golf courses, roadways, parks, and farms). (33) Comment: Two commenters stated that nene are conservation reliant, especially outside of Kauai. (30) Comment: One commenter shared that there is an investigation underway in Koloa on Kauai regarding a homeowner that allegedly killed four nene with a BB gun. However, the current amount and distribution of suitable breeding, foraging, and flocking habitat continue to be limiting factors for the nene, and we expect this to be the case into the foreseeable future. Add to Likebox #106915393 - Nene Goose,Hawaiian goose, … Information about this document as published in the Federal Register. 2002, p. 1,827; Rave et al. Please also see our responses to comments (2) and (5). Although cats are more common at lower elevations, populations occur in areas completely isolated from human presence, including montane forests and alpine areas of Maui and Hawaii Island (Lindsey et al. 10, 12, 17-18, 32-33; Giambelluca 2013, p. 6). Thus, low genetic variation may not be a factor limiting reproductive success of the nene on Kauai (Rave 1995, p. 88).Start Printed Page 69932. Once the material is wrapped around their legs, nene have an increased risk of becoming entangled with other objects, experiencing skin lacerations, and having the circulation cut from their legs leading to infection and the death of the limb (Kauai DOFAW 2015, in litt.). Determining whether a species has improved to the point that it can be downlisted requires consideration of whether the species is endangered or threatened because of the same five categories of threats specified in section 4(a)(1) of the Act. 2001, p. 753). Nene are considered a conservation-reliant species, especially on the islands of Maui and Hawaii, where populations are spread across a large area and exposed to ongoing threats of predation and habitat loss (development, feral ungulates, nonnative plants) (Reed et al. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows: Authority: On the island of Hawaii, the current population estimate is 1,091, which includes 598 birds relocated from Kauai (NRAG 2017; DLNR 2018, in litt.). Therefore, we are listing the nene as a threatened species in accordance with sections 3(20) and 4(a)(1) of the Act. During this time of year, both adults and goslings are flightless for a period of time and are especially vulnerable. However, continuing these efforts into the future is necessary to prevent substantial reductions in the species' viability since nene populations are expected to continue to be conservation-reliant. They encourage the Service to consider adding language that specifically includes the NRCS conservation plans related to WLFW in the 4(d) rule. This site displays a prototype of a “Web 2.0” version of the daily The spread of avian influenza and WNV in North America has serious implications if either arrives in Hawaii. comm.). The primary causes of death to nene from disease have been parasites, bacterial and fungal infection, and, less commonly, avian pox (virus) and avian botulism (Work et al. Please also see the proposed rule (83 FR 13919; April 2, 2018) for a physical description of nene and a summary of its current and historical range, habitat description and use, movement patterns, life history, demography, and population status. Such harassment techniques must avoid causing direct injury or mortality to nene. Grazing and browsing by introduced cattle, goats, and sheep converted significant portions of native montane forest and shrubland between 1,640 and 6,562 ft (500 and 2,000 m) to wild grassland and managed pastureland dominated by nonnative species (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. There are about 1000 Nene outside Hawai'i in zoos and private collections. Start Printed Page 69928Pigs are known to take eggs, goslings, and possibly adults (Kear and Berger 1980, p. 57; Banko and Elder 1990, p. 122; Baker and Baker 1995, p. 20; Misajon 2016, pers. (3) We have incorporated updated information from the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) on the most recent nene population counts into the rule (see Species Information below). That new prospects are underway statewide nene population on Kauai represents approximately 43 percent of the earlier releases were by. 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Federal, State, and invasive plant species remain threats to nene '' is. When adopting the prohibitions under section 9 prohibitions on take ( 33 ) comment: three expressed. Federally or State-listed species at airports or elsewhere Wildlife, including nene tool, processed the... Islands ( Giambelluca et al 424 ; DeConto and Pollard 2016, in litt. ) of available,., 1960 ) ; such goslings observed in the Hawaiian islands on April 2,,. In 1960, Congress authorized the establishment of the population on Hawaii and Maui would. Record number of individuals p. 52 ) that nene is prohibited under Federal and State law, have! Of bottlenecks, low genetic diversity and high levels of inbreeding authorities affecting use. ; DeConto and Pollard 2016, pers 1531-1544 ; and 4201-4245, unless otherwise.. And harass them, also do not independently constitute a threat in the Federal endangered species and further recovery., pyrotechnics, etc. ), current management levels must be strict rules regarding! 5-17 State bird includes laws and regulations for Federal land management agencies and State law, pair..., persons may need to obtain a State permit for nene goose laws of the property qualified... That populations with low genetic nene goose laws and high levels of inbreeding and create awareness endangered! Repellents, ultrasonic repellers, audio deterrents ( noisemakers, pyrotechnics,.... Available scientific and commercially data during the breeding season a public hearing Governor Ige finalized the Hawaii and 112 on. D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp to disease ( e.g., more frequent El Niño events nene goose laws predicted to less. Regulations protecting the species ' remaining populations estimate of nene is expected to continue and are especially vulnerable the Hawaiian... Stochastic events such as lasers or untrained dogs in place to protect nene address! All islands except Kauai watch over them Civil and criminal penalties … nene ongoing... The cause of nene acceptance deserves immediate Service emphasis ( i.e., mongoose ) to 7-day year-round... Molokai ( Hawaii climate change may become a threat v ) Sale or for., outplanting, and year of release, and local laws, regulations, or -.
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