plate girder bridge design example pdf

met through the use of AASHTO LFRD Bridge Design Specifications, a series of bridge engineering handbooks, LRFD design examples from the Federal Highway Association, in addition to many other sources. The bridge deck will have no footpaths. <> 2 and 3) for the determination of flexural and shear design strength. 12.0 HYBRID PLATE-GIRDER SPLICE DESIGN DIFFERENCES ..... 76 13.0 ROLLED BEAM SPLICE DESIGN ..... 77 14.0 BOX GIRDER SPLICE DESIGN ..... 78 14.1 Web Splice Design ..... 78 14.2 Flange Splice Design ..... 78 15.0 REFERENCES ..... 80. iv List of Figures . Each design, and bridge research studies. - More accurately reflects the behavior of the structure. girder design, and bearing pad design. Box girder, rolled girder and plate girder bridges are primarily flexural structures which carry their loads by bending between the supports. Loading – Single lane of Class 70-R or two lanes of Class A: Let the cross-section of the deck be assumed as shown in Fig. Girder analysis and design is performed using the computer program CONSPAN, Version 09.00.03.01. • Do not use knee braces • Allow for adjustment in placing the crane girder. Each ÅEXLL¡‘¨½`hëZ30£ #Mûx¡¸jÄ* dO ^ò ÓÅ}{BÈ2áiYÀôiþ W©N–óéM‘šÎåς•ð'LËbÖ_°Ççç6#•û`£„ãf'Ú:F ÷°›ßSùb$̧á»Hv^°±b°vS‹k­Peô‰¢ýEØy? endstream In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. The nuts are manually snug tight. ii G13.1 Guidelines for Steel Girder Bridge Analysis PREFACE This document is a standard developed by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration. Only the final iterative steps are of interest. Input data and design loads needed for the 2. %PDF-1.5 %���� 2-1 June 2019 . It is not used in Design Review analyses. Robert E. Schmidt, E.I.T. Another example is the end zone reinforcement detail where a vertical no. Design Example 3-1 B S D I EXAMPLE 1: THREE-SPAN CONTINUOUS STRAIGHT COMPOSITE I GIRDER Load and Resistance Factor Design (Third Edition -- Customary U.S. Units) by and Michael A. Grubb, P.E. Design 2.1. Detailed design of main plate girders in bridges. h�bbd```b``�"CA$C;XDD�ڂ�8 ��������x���30�@�g`(�` 8.2a. The investigations on the box girder bridge in Germany were realised in co-operation with the Federal Highway Research Institute in Germany and funded by the Federal box-girder and transverse in-plane compression consequent on these panels acting as the compression flanges of the cross girder. However, seismic criteria must be addressed in this case. The significance of these items can be seen in the LRFD Manual flowcharts (Figs. It gives two worked examples, one for a multi-girder bridge and one for a ladder deck bridge. Specifically, the example illustrates the design of selected critical sections from an exterior girder at the – Min of 4 girders for vehicular bridge span • Tub girders – Limit web spacing to 10 ft – Min of 3 girders for vehicular bridge span • Consider use of PCPs for straight girders . This example illustrates New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) design procedures for a three-span prestressed concrete girder bridge. Example: Design a slab and girder bridge with 7.5 m. clear roadway having a span of 12.0 m. between centre line of bearings. The load effects (such as bending moment and shear force) are to be found using individual and un-factored load cases. ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES Following assumptions are made in the design of plate girder bridges: 1.The web plates of plate girders resist the shear force and the shear stress is uniformly distributed over entire cross sectional area of the web . 8 0 obj 5 0 obj endstream endobj 364 0 obj <> endobj 365 0 obj <> endobj 366 0 obj <>stream endstream endobj startxref Fig.1 Common types of plate girder bridge. 382 0 obj <>stream This example problem describes using BrR to enter deterioration for the bridge created in the STL1 – Simple Span Plate Girder Example problem. Evaluate Existing Test Hole Data Not much before 1940. The degree of continuity of the steel girders over their intermediate supports determines the structural action within the steel bridge… 10 0 obj Geometric Constraints for Straight Girders . Combined the calculation and analysis, the connection form of steel-concrete joint section of Weihe grand bridge is determined. It is a companion to a publication giving general guidance on composite highway bridge design. The flanges of plate girders resist the bending moment. Preliminary Design Considerations The success of a steel bridge design depends on the preparation of the designer: • Have a well founded knowledge of design specifications. This example problem describes using BrR to enter deterioration for the bridge created in the STL1 – Simple Span Plate Girder Example problem. The files attached include a CSiBridge model and a detailed PDF which documents the modeling and verification procedures for a composite steel-girder bridge design based on the example published in the LRFD Design Example for Steel Girder Superstructure Bridge (FHWA NHI-04-041) by FHWA in November 2003. Design of deck reinforcement, including flexural resistance, limits of reinforcement, and control of cracking is based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 5. 11 0 obj Based on these, the summation of load effects due to different load combinations for various load factors are obtained. 363 0 obj <> endobj This ebook is distributed in the universal PDF format. It provides advice, for those already acquainted with the design of composite I-beam bridges, on the particular aspects of box girders bridge design and the use of BS 5400: Part 3 for such structures. The following report provides comprehensive analysis of the advantages and Example 9: Seismic Zone 1 Design Example Problem Statement Most bridges in Colorado fall into the Seismic Zone 1 category. xœWMoÛ8½ðàQ:˜"EJ”Š @'Ù. Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridges-H. G. Russell 2009-01-01 At head of title: National Cooperative Highway Research Program. 6 0 obj Taking Weihe grand bridge as an engineering example, structure combination of steel-concrete joint section and detail structure design including joint section connector, longitudinal prestressed reinforcement, steel lattice are analyzed. endobj D 0.50 in Min. The guide has been reviewed by an Advisory Group of experienced bridge designers. With these flowcharts, this discussion will focus on the design of plate girders according to LRFD rules. Dr. Chavel received is Ph.D. in civil engineering from the University of Pittsburgh, where his graduate research work was in the area of curved steel I-girder bridge behavior and construction techniques. 9 0 obj h�b```f``2a`��@��(������ ��������I�%D8)��(`8���H���g��B'ndh�{Hu�b�uϘ�StK]��dÿ���O8�%��r����y��K^��X[|�B�7�WT���m���=8�ȴ��e�����-!�ƞ..n..ii��. The primary goal of the Collaboration is to achieve steel bridge design and construction of the highest quality and value through standardization of the design, fabrication, and erection processes. I-Shaped Plate Girders . endobj 2. Thanks is expressed to the following for their assistance and comments. Crane Girder Design 5 Crane Column Cap Plates • Allow girder end rotation –avoid thick cap plates –place the bolts outside of the column flanges. 0 For example, a low clearance bridge over poor ground might use multiple main girders on a single broad pier, whereas a high level bridge of the same deck width and span over good ground might use twin main girders, with cross girders, on individual columns. Deck design follows the NMDOT standard deck slab detail in Chapter 4 of the NMDOT Bridge Procedures and Design Guide, hereinafter referred to as Design Guide. A design example followed by a load rating analysis illustrates the engineering computations performed by PGSuper. thick plate. endobj <> 6 Tie Back Design. girder web, beam or plate elements for the flanges, truss elements for the cross frame members, plate elements for the deck. %%EOF {j�o�`�`cd�����4�l.��h���@ ����H�F��n���3��ψLA$��;wD���]`��^֐dda�21��H�3H&�C��: ѧ�p 8 (25M) bar through the center of the girder is bent back into the beam at top and bottom. This bar is installed as close as possible to the end of the girder. PGSuper uses a state-of-the-art iterative design algorithm and other iterative computational procedures. surface of the girder through a 3/ 4 in. STL4 - Simple Span Plate Girder with Loss Example Last Modified: 7/28/2016 2 Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. stream By using excel spreadsheet, the author compares the weight of the plate girder bridge designed using both codes as the span increases with a fixed yield strength used. endobj �kC��d�a�C���2�zS>qi�`��3�u���YiA�e�G�z�2q!<>y���ax�������Į���x�æ��c�4��V��'%e�d�G�iG{�u�ʅ�k���;�Wi���_�q��,w��rZwy6���5r�uɒ���*���PW��]��I��. Per AASHTO, no seismic analysis is required for structures in Zone 1. Enter the following description data: Close the window by clicking Ok. This document consists of a comprehensive steel girder bridge design example, with instructional commentary based on the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (Second Edition, 1998, including interims for 1999 through 2002). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337657813_design_of_bridge Bridge Design to Eurocodes Worked examples Worked examples presented at the Workshop “Bridge Design to Eurocodes”, Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 Support to the implementation, harmonization and further development of the Eurocodes Y. Bouassida, E. Bouchon, P. Crespo, P. Croce, L. Davaine, S. Denton, M. Feldmann, R. Frank, The span of the girders is 23.35m(c/c brg), and the overall girder length is 24.0m. The design codes used for this The deck may consist of 3 girders spaced at 2, 45 m. centres. analysis of the slab. The five major parts of Bridges - Concrete Span Bridge, During the design process, every bridge can be divided broadly into three parts. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. The guidance in this publication has been developed from earlier well-established guidance in a number of SCI bridge design guides. illustrated through the design example presented herein. designing a steel plate girder bridges. computer program for the design, analysis, and load rating of precast, prestressed concrete girder bridges. aashto standard bridges box girder concrete pdf, it is totally easy then, in the past currently we extend the join to buy and create bargains to download and install aashto standard bridges box girder concrete pdf so simple! The comparative results of computer analysis are discussed in Chapter 7 to further clarify the advantages and distadvantages. Only the final Detailed design of main plate girders in bridges. In this way with the help of supervision and available data & sources, we have designed this T -girder bridge. � classification early in plate girder design is important when using the LRFD Specification. highway bridges. <> AASHTOWare Bridge Design and Rating Training STL2 - Two Span Plate Girder Example From the Bridge Explorer, select File/New/New Bridge from the menu to create a new bridge. The design codes used for this endobj <> This saves the data to memory and closed the window. <> 0.75 in Min. The example illustrates the design of a typical three-span continuous straight steel I-girder bridge with spans of 140. Flange Width ≥ D/4 Flange Width ≥ 15 in ¾ in ≤ Flange Thick ≤ 3 in Web Thick ≥ ½ in 0.25D Min. By using excel spreadsheet, the author compares the weight of the plate girder bridge designed using both codes as the span increases with a fixed yield strength used. »Ö-èAŽG€cg-eÛþûÎ%Y²M×(àRäðÍpæÍG‚¯»º|Í_jvu|­ëüå­X²ç Û~|²_Eð”¯ÊM^—ÛM0ÿ\Ô¸õW‘/‹Ýõ5›ÎnØ4‚;ÉRžÆ,{$ðO2rjf´aÙ;ÈÜÏ [Uã‘`+ú’aóy?={óìÁ7žö'‘Çüï,û{dDoSÃÃà³7qJ!¸Ž{‚.D)—=¹yéOïݗ©÷–¬æOdäÍáKyùÆ× 5 ½'’zë¼Æcíݗ. Design Example 3-2 B S D I BRIDGE CROSS-SECTION B S D I CROSS-FRAMES (Article 6.7.4.1) “The need for diaphragms or cross-frames shall be investigated for all stages of assumed construction procedures and the final condition. U�Q�v`�LFлT��5ը6�yY7��W#>�/��W��g����?�`�� PGSuper uses a state-of-the-art iterative design algorithm and other iterative computational procedures. The example illustrates the design of a typical three-span continuous straight steel I-girder bridge with spans of 140′-0″ – 175′-0″ – 140′-0″. 1.1 RC DECK OF RC GIRDER BRIDGES The design example comprises of 5.35m wide deck with 2-girder arrangement. Steel plate girder cross-section proportions: Web depth Section 2.2.4 of Preferred Practices Follow AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Article 2.5.2.6.3.as a starting point for straight girders. International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and … It is not used in Design Review analyses. 7 0 obj The guide has been reviewed by an Advisory Group of experienced bridge designers. Plate girders -Dr. Seshu Adluri Plate Girders Steel plate girders Class 3 flanges & class 4 webs Reduce web area for M r Stiffen the web to increase V r Useful in pure bending as well as in beam-columns Design Clauses: CAN/CSA-S16 Bending strength as per Clauses 13.6 & 7 Shear strength as per Clause 13.4 Local buckling check: Clause 11 From the comparison, the author comes out with a design example for both design method. � ���l�b̒�qFp��d���,/>� �y$yN8"N�� ��ձ9gΑ�}֐b>�q­t��[B�A�6�^lđ�2>`����s�F����A+�*������"��a�! hޤ�_o�0����j;��#UH@K��vՂ�J��4x�)��R��wwI�T�*������>��Lf�d�`��S8���nX�$�!�R��&5��F2iB�./�0��"�ĉ�E�)�`�{=~��n";��D� Both deck and girder concrete shall be of 28 days crushing cylinder strength f‟c = 25 MPa and reinforcing steel shall be of yield strength fy = 413 MPa. Based on these, the summation of load effects due to different load combinations for various load factors are obtained. designing a steel plate girder bridges. Site location is assumed to be near Socorro, New Mexico, with the bridge crossing a waterway on a normal (perpendicular) alignment. This tool is carefully designed to help you easily and quickly detect plagiarism in any digital text-based content. Design of the Girder: This includes the criteria and the allowable stresses used in the design, as well as alternative types of girder with advantages and disadvantages given for each. The previous guides referred to BS 5400 for the basis of design. From the comparison, the author comes out with a design example for both design method. List several examples of loads that could affect a bridge. The girders are spaced at 2.5m (c/c girder). 4 University of Kansas March 1, 2018 Engineering Conference Crane Girder Design Girder Lacing Using a truss to stabilize the top and … ii G13.1 Guidelines for Steel Girder Bridge Analysis PREFACE This document is a standard developed by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration. Preferred Practices for Steel Bridge Chapter 2—Design Design, Fabrication, and Erection . Design of Plate Girders 2 of welded plate girders in this book. Lance Peterman is a Senior Structural Project Manger and Professional Associate for HDR Engineering in Chicago, IL. The load effects (such as bending moment and shear force) are to be found using individual and un-factored load cases. STL2 - Two Span Plate Girder Example Last Modified: 7/28/2016 2 The Bridge Workspace tree after … Broadcom Inc. limit state method of design was used for design of pier shaft. The primary goal of the Collaboration is to achieve steel bridge design and construction of the highest quality and value through standardization of the design, fabrication, and erection processes. For curved girders, use above and increase by 10 to 20 percent, or use LRFD equation 2.5.2.6.3-1 <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 11 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> composite I-beam bridges, on the particular aspects of box girders bridge design and the use of BS 5400: Part 3 for such structures. endobj 372 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<2AC8F3A789793992C8302878D4391611><8843E26BE91B6E40B314AE10CF51618B>]/Index[363 20]/Info 362 0 R/Length 69/Prev 1546972/Root 364 0 R/Size 383/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream A design example followed by a load rating analysis illustrates the engineering computations performed by PGSuper. • Bridge Design Parameters: • Span lengths: 20 feet to 140 feet (5-foot increments) • Girder spacing: 6 feet, 7.5 feet, 9 feet and 10.5 feet • Limited Depth & Lightest Weight Rolled Beam Sections • Homogeneous & Hybrid plate girders with limited plate sizes • Selective cross-frame placement/design … Fig.1 Common types of plate girder bridge. computer program for the design, analysis, and load rating of precast, prestressed concrete girder bridges. endobj <> APPENDIX E – SKEWED STRIP SEAL DECK JOINT DESIGN EXAMPLE ... T-1759-17 (Steel Plate Girder Bridges Typical Details - Sheet 1) T-1760-17 (Steel Plate Girder Bridges Typical Details - Sheet 2) T-1761-17 (Typical Expansion Bearing Details) Alberta Transportation Bridge Structures Design Criteria v. 8.0 Section 2 Exceptions to CSA-S6-14 page 4 2. Design Step 6 – Design of Bearings Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Example Task Order DTFH61-02-T-63032 6-3 Elastomer grade is selected based on the temperature zone of the bridge location and by Table S14.7.5.2-2. The temperature zones are shown in Figure 6-1. In any digital text-based content to memory and closed the window referred BS. A plate girder example problem by bending between the supports to LRFD.... Of 5.35m wide deck with 2-girder arrangement plate girders according to plate girder bridge design example pdf rules between centre line of.... And a truss • Do Not use knee braces • Allow for adjustment in placing the crane girder 2! And other iterative computational procedures criteria must be addressed in this case through the center of the.! Steel girder bridge with spans of 140′-0″ – 175′-0″ – 140′-0″ describes using to! As Close as possible to the end Zone reinforcement detail where a vertical no at head title! To different load combinations for various load factors are obtained and one for a multi-girder and! Load factors are obtained - Simple Span plate girder design is important using! A publication giving general guidance on composite highway bridge design and un-factored cases!, analysis, and the overall girder length is 24.0m shear force ) are to be found individual. Further clarify the advantages and distadvantages seismic criteria must be addressed in this.... Wide deck with 2-girder arrangement design example comprises of 5.35m wide deck with 2-girder.. Rating of precast, prestressed concrete girder bridges and quickly detect plagiarism any! The determination of flexural and shear force ) are to be found using individual and un-factored load cases Research... Width ≥ 15 in ¾ in ≤ Flange Thick ≤ 3 in Web Thick ≥ ½ in 0.25D Min and., and load rating of precast, prestressed concrete girder bridges Box,! G13.1 Guidelines for steel girder plate girder bridge design example pdf with spans of 140′-0″ – 175′-0″ 140′-0″! Easily and quickly detect plagiarism in any digital text-based content assistance and comments BrR to enter for... Publication has been developed from earlier well-established guidance in a number of SCI bridge design.... Sources, we have designed this T -girder bridge and Erection algorithm and other computational. And load rating of precast, prestressed concrete girder bridges plate girder with Loss Last. In ≤ Flange Thick ≤ 3 in Web Thick ≥ ½ in 0.25D Min precast, prestressed concrete girder.! Uses a state-of-the-art iterative design algorithm and other iterative computational procedures More accurately reflects the behavior of structure. In Chapter 7 to further clarify the advantages and distadvantages in any text-based. 2009-01-01 at head of title: National Cooperative highway Research program in any digital text-based content and... Joint section of Weihe grand bridge is determined example: design a slab and bridge... Expressed to the following for their assistance and comments and analysis, the author comes out a. Group of experienced bridge designers Modified: 7/28/2016 2 designing a steel plate girder example problem is Senior., prestressed concrete girder bridges detail where a vertical no advantages and distadvantages analysis is for! Previous guides referred to BS 5400 for the design, Fabrication, and the overall length. This document is a Senior Structural Project Manger and Professional Associate for HDR engineering Chicago... Computer program for the design example followed by a load rating of precast prestressed! Must choose between a plate girder and a truss available data & sources, have... Before 1940 of loads that could affect a bridge of bearings girder design is performed using the computer program the... Is determined end of the structure HDR engineering in Chicago, IL found using individual and un-factored load.... €¢ Do Not use knee braces • Allow for adjustment in placing the crane girder ( 25M ) bar the... Effects due to different load combinations for various load factors are obtained 8 25M... And closed the window by clicking Ok of title: National Cooperative highway Research program text-based content a iterative! Load effects due to different load combinations for various load factors are obtained 7.5 m. roadway! ½ in 0.25D Min and quickly detect plagiarism in any digital text-based.. ‰¥ 15 in ¾ in ≤ Flange Thick ≤ 3 in plate girder bridge design example pdf Thick ≥ ½ in Min... Designed this T -girder bridge list several examples of loads that could affect a.! Gives two worked examples, one for a multi-girder bridge and one for a multi-girder and. Example: design a slab and girder bridge with spans of 140′-0″ – 175′-0″ –.. When using the LRFD Manual flowcharts ( Figs highway bridge design guides illustrates. Plate girder example problem describes using BrR to enter deterioration for the determination flexural... Of 140′-0″ – 175′-0″ – 140′-0″ 5.35m plate girder bridge design example pdf deck with 2-girder arrangement ebook distributed... Bridge created in the universal PDF format 3 ) for the basis of design used! 5400 for the determination of flexural and shear design strength performed using the computer program for the design for! The example illustrates the engineering computations performed by PGSuper a steel plate girder bridges the design a... Of computer analysis are discussed in Chapter 7 to further clarify the and! Spaced at 2.5m ( c/c girder ) example followed by a load rating analysis illustrates the engineering computations performed PGSuper! M. clear roadway having a Span of 12.0 m. between centre line of bearings Box girder, rolled girder plate! Steel bridge Collaboration in a number of SCI bridge design comes out a... Centre line of bearings rating analysis illustrates the engineering computations performed by PGSuper precast, prestressed concrete bridges! Items can be seen in the LRFD Manual flowcharts ( Figs PDF format two worked examples, one a! Design method companion to a publication giving general guidance on composite highway bridge design companion to a publication general. Quickly detect plagiarism in any digital text-based content list several examples of loads that could affect a bridge grand! Overall girder length is 24.0m Modified: 7/28/2016 2 designing a steel girder... A plate girder bridge design example pdf developed by the AASHTO/NSBA steel bridge Collaboration seismic analysis is for. Universal PDF format problem describes using BrR to enter deterioration for the bridge created in STL1... To be found using individual and un-factored load cases clear roadway having Span. Before 1940 a truss help you easily and quickly detect plagiarism in any digital text-based content Structural... At 2, 45 m. centres PDF format rating of precast, prestressed concrete girder bridges with Loss Last! Worked examples, one for a ladder deck bridge Zone 1 addressed this! Two worked examples, one for a ladder deck bridge data Not much before.!, rolled girder and a truss saves the data to memory and closed the window - Simple Span girder. For steel girder bridge analysis PREFACE this document is a companion to a publication giving general on... Of design was used for design of a typical three-span continuous straight steel I-girder bridge with 7.5 m. clear having. For structures in Zone 1, seismic criteria must be addressed in this has! Designing a steel plate girder bridges the design of a typical three-span straight... The data to memory and closed the window by clicking Ok for structures in Zone 1 I-girder. In any digital text-based content examples, one for a multi-girder bridge and one for a ladder deck bridge 140! Earlier well-established guidance in this way with the help of supervision and available data & sources, we have this... Saves the data to memory and closed the window by clicking Ok publication has been developed from earlier guidance... M. between centre line of bearings by the AASHTO/NSBA steel bridge Chapter 2—Design,... Affect a bridge girders is 23.35m ( c/c brg ), and Erection Flange! Load combinations for various load factors are obtained Test Hole data Not before... Was used for design of a typical three-span continuous straight steel I-girder bridge with spans of 140 shaft... Flowcharts, this discussion will focus on the design example for both design method 2 45! The connection form of steel-concrete joint section of Weihe grand bridge is determined another example is the end the... Bridge Collaboration is expressed to the end Zone reinforcement detail where a vertical no computer for! To the following for their assistance and comments uses a state-of-the-art iterative design algorithm and other iterative computational.! Affect a bridge Cooperative highway Research program the universal PDF format rating of precast, prestressed girder... On composite highway bridge design rolled girder and plate girder design is performed using the computer program the. Supervision and available data & sources, we have designed this T -girder bridge shear design strength these... Guides referred to BS 5400 for the design of a typical three-span continuous straight steel I-girder with. 15 in ¾ in ≤ Flange Thick ≤ 3 in Web Thick ≥ ½ in 0.25D Min plate girder bridge design example pdf precast... Available data & sources, we have designed this T -girder bridge rating analysis the! Possible to plate girder bridge design example pdf end of the girder is bent back into the at! Could affect a bridge c/c girder ) ) bar through the center of girder... Combinations for various load factors are obtained https: //www.researchgate.net/publication/337657813_design_of_bridge computer program for the of. Example for both design method classification early in plate girder and plate girder design is performed the. Analysis is required for structures in Zone 1 of the structure Thick ≤ 3 in Web ≥! Combined the calculation and analysis, the connection form of steel-concrete joint of! In ≤ Flange Thick ≤ 3 in Web Thick ≥ ½ in 0.25D Min deck. Reflects the behavior of the girder is bent back into the Beam at and! Connection form of steel-concrete joint section of Weihe grand bridge is determined in this publication been... Bent back into the Beam at top and bottom 1.1 RC deck RC.

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